Kefir is a fermented milk similar to yoghurt.
It is one of the oldest cultured milk products in existence, enjoying widespread popularity in Russia and the Caucasus.
The history of kefir making and the legends connected to this amazing food are described below.
Amongst the people of the northern slopes of the Caucasian Mountains there is a legend that Mohammed
gave kefir grains to the Orthodox people and taught them how to make kefir.
The 'Grains of the Prophet’ were guarded jealously since it was believed that they would lose their strength
if the grains were given away and the secret of how to use them became common knowledge.
Kefir grains were regarded as part of the family's and tribe's wealth and they were passed
on from generation to generation.
So, for centuries the people of the northern Caucasus enjoyed this food without sharing
it with anyone else they came into contact with.
Other peoples occasionally heard strange tales of this unusual beverage which was said to have ‘magical’ properties.
Marco Polo mentioned kefir in the chronicles of his travels in the East.
However, kefir was forgotten outside the Caucasus for centuries until news spread of its use for the
treatment of tuberculosis in sanatoria and for intestinal and stomach diseases.
Russian doctors believed that kefir was beneficial for health and the first scientific studies for kefir were
published at the end of the nineteenth century.
However, kefir was extremely difficult to obtain and commercial production was not possible
without first obtaining a source of grains.
The members of the All Russian Physician’s Society were determined to obtain kefir grains in
order to make kefir readily available to their patients.
Early this century a representative of the society approached two brothers called Blandov and asked
them to procure some kefir grains. The Blandov’s owned and ran the Moscow Dairy, but they also had holdings
in the Caucasus Mountain area, including cheese manufacturing factories in the town of Kislovodsk.
The plan was to obtain a source of kefir grains and then produce kefir on an industrial scale in Moscow.
The Blandov’s were excited since they knew that they would be the only commercial producers of this
much sought after product.
The true story of the Blandov's quest for the elusive kefir grains is below.
Nikolai Blandov sent a beautiful young employee, Irina Sakharova, to the court of a local prince,
Bek-Mirza Barchorov. She was instructed to charm the prince and persuade him to give her some kefir grains.
Unfortunately, everything did not go according to plan. The prince, fearing retribution for violating
a religious law, had no intention of giving away any 'Grains of the Prophet’.
However, he was very taken with the young Irina and didn't want to lose her either.
Realising that they were not going to complete their mission, Irina and her party departed for Kislovodsk.
However, they were stopped on the way home by mountain tribesmen who kidnapped Irina and took her back to the prince.
Since it was a local custom to steal a bride, Irina was told that she was to marry Bek-Mirza Barchorov.
Only a daring rescue mission mounted by agents of her employers saved Irina from the forced marriage.
The unlucky prince was catted before the Tsar who ruled that the prince was to give Irina ten pounds of kefir grains,
to recompense her for the insults she had endured.
The kefir grains were taken to the Moscow Dairy and in September, 1908, the first bottles of kefir
drink were offered for sale in Moscow. Small quantities of kefir were produced in several
small towns in the area where there was a ready market for it, people mostly consume it for its alleged medicinal value.
Commercial manufacture of kefir on a large scale began in Russia, in the 1930s.
However, it is difficult to produce kefir by conventional methods on a commercial scale.
Traditionally, kefir was made in cows or goats milk in sacks made from the hides of animals.
Occasionally it was also made in clay pots or wooden buckets or oak vats and in some areas sheeps milk was also used.
Usually the kefir sacks were hung in the sun during the day and brought back into the house at night,
when they were hung near the door. Everyone who entered or left the house was expected to prod the sack
with their foot to mix the contents. As kefir was removed more fresh milk was added,
making the fermentation process continuous.
By the 1930’s kefir was being made as a set-type product which entailed growing a quantity of
grains milk and then straining out the grains and adding the cultured milk to a larger batch of fresh milk.
The mixture was incubated and, when set, allowed to cool.
Unfortunately, this type of product was not as good as the one produced using the tradition home-style method.
During the 1950’s workers at the All-Union Dairy Research Institute (VNIMI) developed a new method
for commercial kefir production which gave a drink similar to that produced in the home by traditional methods.
The kefir was produced by the stirred method.
Fermentation, coagulation, agitation, ripening and cooling, were carried out in a large vessel,
and then the kefir was bottled.
In 1973 the Minister of the Food Industry of the Soviet Union sent a letter to Irina Sakharova
thanking her for bringing kefir to the Russian people.
Presently, kefir is the most popular fermented milk in Russia.
Various reports have stated that it accounts for between 65% and 80% of total fermented
milk sales in Russia with production of over 1.2 million tons per year in 1988.
The average yearly consumption of kefir in the Soviet Union was estimated at
approximately 4.5 kilograms per person per year in the early 1980s.
Currently kefir is being manufactured on a commercial scale in Czechoslovakia, Finland,
Hungary, Norway, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, Russia and various of the former soviet
union states, Denmark, the United States, France, West Germany, Canada and parts of southeast Asia.
In addition to plain kefir, many flavoured varieties are available, being especially popular in the United States.